Reflection: In future, start further into Headway Elementary (e.g. unit 5 or 6) as the middle of Headway Elementary seems to correspond better with the NOCN E2 S&L syllabus. Or will this also be the case for reading and writing syllabi?
To pass your speaking and listening exams, you will need to demonstrate the following skills and abilities. Here is a key to the information below.
1. Unit learning outcomes (bold type)
1.1 Assessment criterion (1.1, 1.2, etc.)
- A. Example of skill required (specific examples of language and/or grammar required) [References to appropriate learning materials in square brackets]
- B. Example of skill required (specific examples of language and/or grammar required)
- C. Skill examples in bold type are not addressed by the Headway materials we plan to cover this term.
1. Speak clearly to be heard and understood in straightforward exchanges
1.1 Use stress, pronunciation and intonation adequately to make speech comprehensible and meaning understood.
- A. Places stress appropriately in familiar words and on key content words in sentences (thirty/thirteen, Sorry to bother you. Could I possibly leave at 12 today? I’ve got an appointment.) [HESB1.7.4, HESB2.19 (adapt/augment to address this skill), HESB3.27.3 (adapt/augment to address this skill)]
- B. Distinguishes between similar sounding phonemes to make meaning clear (I went from Egypt to Saudi Arabia by ship/sheep, itch time/each time) [This is not explicitly addressed in HESB1-3 but M should have plenty of ship/sheep type resources. Also BBC pronunuciation.)
- C. Uses intonation appropriately in statements, questions, requests and to indicate attitude, for example, politeness [HESB1.11.6(will need adapting/augmenting), HESB2.13.3-4 (may need adapting/augmenting), HESB2.19 (may need some adapting augmenting), HESB3.27.3 (augment/adapt)
- D. Uses intonation to distinguish between a polite request and a demand. Uses stress and intonation to emphasise the main points of accounts and to create interest. Uses intonation appropriately when expressing feelings, likes and dislikes [This range of intonation functions is not explicitly addressed in HESB1-3]
2. Make requests, ask questions to obtain information and respond to questions and requests
2.1 Make polite requests, using modal verbs or other forms.
- A. Makes polite requests using modal verbs and other forms (Could I speak to the manager, please? I’d like to see Mrs Brown, please.) [
done 25/9/12] HESB2.19.4
- B. Incorporates a request in a longer interaction (I’m Ranjit’s mother. Could I see Mrs Brown, please? It’s about Ranjit’s homework.) HESB2.19.4
- C. Prefaces a request with an introductory word or phrase and follows request with an explanation (Sorry to bother you. I need to ask you, could I possibly leave at 12 today? I’ve got an appointment.) HESB3.27.3
2.2 Recognise and respond appropriately to requests for information and straightforward questions.
- A. Recognises different WH questions and yes/no questions and responds with short or fuller answers, recognising when a fuller answer is required HESB1.6.1-3, HESB2.12-15, HESB2.19, HESB3.22-25,
- B. Recognises the time to which the question refers to and responds appropriately (Q:How often do you go to the cinema? A:Oh only about twice a year. Q:What did you do last night? A:I went to the cinema. Q:What are you going to do next year? A:I’m going to leave college.)
2.3 Ask questions to obtain information from others.
- A. Forms WH and yes/noquestions. Uses question form of simple present and simple past tense of common verbs, including verbs to be, to do, to have (What’s your address? Where do you work? Do you speak English? What time is..? Do you live in York? Have you got a job? Have you got any children? Can you tell me..?) HESB1.6.1-3, HESB2.12-15, HESB2.19, HESB3.22-25,
- B. Follows up on responses to questions [HESB2.15.1-2 with modification could address this]
- C. Forms questions using appropriate verb forms and time markers (including adverbs of frequency) to refer to present, past and future time (What do you do at the weekends? Did you see the news last night? Are you going to the party tonight? ) [HESB3.24-25]
- D. Asks for directions and instructions, using questions of different types (Excuse me, how do I get to…?) [Do any DfES materials cover this?]
- E. Forms comparative questions (Is the train more expensive than the bus?)
2.4 Ask questions to clarify understanding.
- A. Signals misunderstanding and asks for explanation. Uses different question types to deal with uncertainty/lack of understanding (I don’t quite understand. Could you explain it again please? What does this mean? Do you mean..? How do you spell…?)
3. Present information to others
3.1 Express clearly a short account about an event in the past.
- A. Sequences an account so as to make meaning clear, using time markers, for example, ago, last year, yesterday, to help structure the account (She looked after the children yesterday morning and then she went to work in the afternoon.) [This is addressed in HESB7-8]
3.2 Express clearly short, sequenced directions or instructions.
- A. Recognises and responds appropriately to requests for directions or instructions. Uses grammatical forms suitable for the level, e.g. Present Simple, Imperatives and Negative Imperatives, Prepositional Phrases for direction and location. Sequences the information clearly, for example, with markers such as firstly, next (Q:How do I get to..? A:Go straight on, past the lights and turn right. Don’t switch it on. First you switch the machine on, then you enter a password.)
3.3 Express clearly a short description of a person, place or object.
- A. Uses the present tense to describe a person, place or object (He’s tall and slim. It’s a beautiful town. It’s black and white. She’s got long, dark hair. He’s got a beard and a moustache. It’s gold with a silver edge.)
- B. Uses descriptive adjectives and adds interest to a description (see previous examples)
- C. Makes comparisons, using comparative adjectives with –er and more (It’s more expensive than… London is bigger than Addis Ababa.)
3.4 Express clearly statements of fact and personal information.
- A. Uses grammatical forms suitable for the level, for example, Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Continuous for Future, Prepositions of Place and Time, Indefinite and Definite Article, Possessive -s, and Possessive Pronouns (I don’t work on Wednesdays. I was a nurse in Somalia but I don’t have a job now. I’m going to take my son to the park tomorrow.
- B. Recognises direct and less direct requests for information (WH and yes/no questions, Tell me about…) and responds with minimal responses, short forms of the verb or longer answers, as appropriate. Links giving personal information with asking for personal information when appropriate (Q: Have you got any children? A:Yes, two. OR No I haven’t. OR ‘Yes, I’ve got two boys. What about you? I can’t swim. Can you? I’m going to college in September. What about you?)
4. Follow the main points and make appropriate contributions to discussions
4.1 Follow and participate in social interaction in formal and informal situations and make contributions relevant to the topic.
- A. Greets and responds to greetings (A:Hi. How are you? B:Fine, thanks. And you? A:I’m okay. How was your weekend?)
- B. Extends and responds to invitations and offers (Q:Would you like tea or coffee? Q:Would you like another biscuit or some cake? A:I’d love some cake please. Q:Would you like to come to dinner tomorrow evening? A:Yes, I’d love to. What time? OR Sorry, I can’t. I’m going to English classes.)
- C. Takes leave, insisting politely if necessary (Have a good weekend. I’m sorry but I really must go.)
- D. Takes part in more formal interaction, elaborating where appropriate, for example: Introduces self and gives personal information; States problems, wishes (I don’t want an evening class, because I have young children.)
- E. Apologises (Sorry I’m late. I missed the bus.)
4.2 Express feelings, likes and dislikes, views and opinions to others, giving reasons or results.
- A. Expresses degrees of like/dislike. Uses a range of adjectives to express feelings. (I quite like… I really don’t like.. I’m really tired. I’m so happy.)
- B. Elaborates by expressing reason or result (I like Manchester because it’s really friendly. I don’t like London, so I don’t go there very often.)
- C. Uses simple phrases to introduce an opinion. (I think… I think she’s a good teacher, because she listens to us.)
4.3 Listen, and respond appropriately to, simply expressed feelings and opinions.
- A. Relates to other speakers, making contributions relevant to the topic and the discussion. Links own contribution to that of others’, using discourse markers. Indicates agreement or disagreement (You’re right. Maybe… I’m not sure. That’s right. I thinks so, too. Yes, but… I don’t really agree because… Do you think..? What do you think about..? What about..? How do you feel about..?)
- B. Invites contributions from other speakers. Introduces a new topic of discussion. (see previous examples)
5. Listen to obtain information from others
5.1 Listen for gist and identify the situation and key words.
- A. Recognises context, identifying the situation, speaker(s) and/or topic. Identifies key words in a given context.
5.2 Listen to and follow short explanations, directions and instructions.
- A. Recognises the order of events in an explanation. Recognises and responds to sequence markers (first, then, finally, because of, so, as a result)
- B. Recognises discourse markers [Shouldn’t this be subordinating conjunctions?], especially those indicating cause and effect and result
- C. Responds appropriately to explanations. Takes appropriate action in response to directions and instructions.
5.3 Listen for and identify the main points from a short presentation or explanation.
- A. Extracts the main points when listening to presentations or explanations.
Lesson aims and objectives
Each lesson will take as its main aim one, or several, of the above functional skills (e.g. 4.2) though not necessarily in the same order. The term’s work will aim to address all of the above skills prior to the exam. The order in which these skills are addressed will depend largely on the Headway course book material as it unfolds. Skills not addressed in the Headway material will require adaptation of scheduled Headway activities or the use of material from other sources.